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Thread: Qigong as Medicine

  1. #151
    Join Date
    Jan 1970
    Fremont, CA, U.S.A.

    Therapeutic Activity Within a Youth Detention Facility

    Baduanjin Used as a Therapeutic Activity Within a Youth Detention Facility
    BaduanJin 八段錦 (‘eight brocade exercise’) is a classic system of Chinese physical culture. Such systems are generically called qigong. There are an almost innumerable number of qigong sets that integrate, in different proportions, breathwork, stretching, physical exercise and meditative practices. Some are crafted to enhance health; others are for the purpose of developing power or martial arts abilities. Each set can have quite different effects on body and mind. Baduanjin is known to enhance skeletal-muscular fitness and vascular health, as well as enabling practitioners to modulate and control their emotions. [1] The term ‘brocade’ can be interpreted in a variety of ways. One that the author finds most useful is that brocade refers to the body’s web of connective tissue (fascia, ligaments and tendons). These are stretched and strengthened through the integration of specific physical movements with certain breathing techniques. A useful image for this is a Chinese finger trap, a tube of woven bamboo strips, that is inserted on the ends of two fingers, and locks (becomes rigid) when pulled, thereby tightening the weave of the bamboo strips.

    There are a number of variations of baduanjin, both standing and sitting. The set that I use in my clinical practice is a standing set, that has the following exercises:

    Two Hands Hold up the Heavens
    Drawing the Bow to Shoot the Eagle
    Separate Heaven and Earth
    Owl Gazes Backwards or Look Back
    Sway the Head and Shake the Tail
    Two Hands Hold the Feet to Strengthen the Kidneys and Waist
    Clench the Fists and Glare Fiercely
    Bouncing on the Toes
    A comprehensive discussion about baduanjin would require a book. To do justice to the topic, such a work would include a full discussion of the history of physical culture in China, as well as a discussion of the proto-scientific theories that underpin these exercises. Furthermore, it would also be necessary to discuss the physical and psychological effects that the performance of baduanjin, and whether any of these claims are research-based. Such a study would be further complicated by the variety of exercises, both sitting or standing, that can comprise a baduanjin set, as well as the different ways that the practitioner is taught to execute that set.

    Instead, I will be quite specific here. I am going to discuss one extended case where I used baduanjin as a mode of ‘stealth psychological intervention’ among incarcerated American youth. It is, in essence, a phenomenological case-report. Phenomenological accounts can be of considerable value, because they often bring new, unexpected information. All too often, researchers search for confirmation for what they already expect to be true. Phenomenology introduces us to the unexpected, offering new directions for research on areas of human existence that have not been thought of before.

    Were one to carry out further research on using baduanjin in circumstances much like the following case-account, one would need:

    ‘Differential sorting.’ so that the researcher is sure that she or he has a cohort of incarcerated youth who are detained for similar reasons, coming from similar socio-economic circumstances, etc.
    Several research cohorts. One would need to standardize the practice of a specific set of baduanjin for the study. Or, one could choosing two or more different baduanjin methodologies to compare. Finally, one could add a different type of exercise, anything from yoga to such things as body-weight calisthenics to compare rates of improvement.
    A consideration of teachers. Will differences in teacher personality or style of teaching effect rates of improvements. In other words, is it the messenger or the message?
    In Lock Up: Baduanjin as a Vehicle Towards Personal Integrity
    Approximately thirty years ago, I worked at a community mental health agency, specializing in crisis intervention. The local youth detention facility contacted my supervisor, and outlined the following problem: The facility functioned as a jail for youth under the age of eighteen. They had forty single bed cells, holding young people as young as twelve, detained for misdemeanors like truancy, vandalism and petty theft, as well as holding those either awaiting trial or after- conviction placement in a long-term facility for serious drug dealing, rape, assault and murder. They were approximately ninety percent male, and a number of them were gang affiliated, divided among Crips and Bloods (which were, perhaps surprising to some of my readers, multi-racial) and various Hispanic gangs.

    The detention facility generally had between seventy and eighty young people incarcerated at any time. “Wait a moment,” the reader might ask, having read the number of ‘forty single-bed cells.’ The overflow slept on mattresses in the hallways. The director described the facility as ‘hot,’ meaning that there were frequent conflicts between inmates and staff (called ‘counselors’ rather than ‘correctional officers,’ as is customary in youth facilities) as well as fights among the youths themselves. The director requested that mental health specialists be dispatched to the facility to conduct twice a week group therapy sessions to lower the ‘heat.’

    Another therapist, Carola Schmid and myself, were each dispatched to separately conduct such therapy sessions. They were a disaster. No one talked. What would they talk about anyway? Their crimes? Other people’s crimes? Their gang affiliation or their conflict with other gangs? Each of these would have put them at either legal or physical risk. How about talking about their insecurities, their fears, their loneliness, or their traumas? What do you, the reader, think would happen to any youth who exposed his or her vulnerability within a group where some were predators, and others willingly lent themselves to pack and mob aggression? Any jail or prison community is a dominance hierarchy, and self-disclosure would be the same as painting a bright blue spot on a magpie’s neck—all the other birds in the flock would peck at it, until the bird was killed.

    There were other problems. The population was not stable. Some youth were quickly released—their minor misdemeanors attended to by family, attorneys or probation officers. Others were hospitalized due to complications from drug abuse or mental illness. Others had their crimes adjudicated and they were transferred to other facilities. There was stress among different ethnic groups, different gang affiliations, and the rare girl in the group would, just by her presence, precipitate macho posturing, roughhousing, clowning around or sexual harassment.

    Ms. Schmid and I came up with a plan that we proposed to the facility director and our supervisor. She is an expert at Astanga Yoga, a very powerful, dynamic form, sometimes referred to as ‘power yoga,’ and I am an expert instructor of traditional martial arts. We would go there, alternating on a weekly basis, and she would teach yoga and I would teach baduanjin. [2]

    As I did not attend Ms. Schmid’s classes, I cannot report in detail on her success, but in our regular conversations, she clearly had much the same effect on her classes as I did. (In some respects, Ashtanga Yoga works the body in the same way as baduanjin, but in a much more intense and extreme fashion).

    Ms. Schmid writes of her own classes:

    On one occasion, I wanted to teach them handstands without the wall, so I asked them to get in groups of three, so two people could help/spot the person going in the handstand. There was some reluctant movement and then one kid said, “No f**king way,” which seemed to be what all the other kids were thinking. I asked why, to which he replied “I don’t f**king trust anyone in here.” They agreed that they would all try if I was one of the two people helping/spotting, and we worked our way through the group.
    continued next post
    Gene Ching
    Author of Shaolin Trips
    Support our forum by getting your gear at MartialArtSmart

  2. #152
    Join Date
    Jan 1970
    Fremont, CA, U.S.A.

    continued from previous post

    As to my work, please remember that each class would have about 70% new members. Those who were there on a regular basis were awaiting trial on felony charges. Each session, therefore, required an introduction. We would meet in an open space, much like a volleyball court, myself and about fifteen to twenty youth. After a brief introduction, invariably, one young man would ask, “So, you are going to teach us to kick ass?”

    My reply, “You don’t know how to do that? You need some old man to teach you?” I would say this with a smile, so the youth was teased by his comrades, not shamed. I would then continue: “You really think I would teach you anything that would make you a better fighter? I am doing this for a living. This is my job. I don’t even know you guys. If I teach you something that makes you a better fighter and you get out and use it, then what’s the paper going to say? ‘Youth taught martial arts at Thomas Abernathy Youth Center, arrested in assault.’ I’d lose my job. I’m not going to lose my job over you guys!”

    This would break the ice. Some kids would laugh. Most would smile. Then, “So let me ask you a question. Don’t you hate it when someone makes you mad? There you were, minding your own business, having a good day, and someone makes you mad, you lose your temper, and maybe you end up doing something you didn’t plan to do, maybe not even want to do. Maybe that’s why you ended up here. Well, I’m going to teach you some exercises that have the possibility of altering your mind, so that other people won’t be able to make you mad. You’ll only get mad when you want to be mad.” And then we would begin.

    Perhaps the reader might ask why I didn’t explain the negative consequences of anger in one’s life, or how these techniques would help one control one’s temper and not get angry at all. This would be naïve. These youth lived in a world of power, obsessively focused on dominance hierarchies within their own small societies, both out of the detention facility and within it as well. Any admission that they needed help being less angry would appear to others as weakness. As one young man said to a therapist-associate of mine, “Ma’am, that sounds really nice, what you are saying about anger. But if I tried what you are saying—and it worked—I wouldn’t last a week in my neighborhood.”

    Every once in a while, a young man would test me. He would start clowning around, bothering other youth, maybe posturing up to me. I’d send him away from the group, calmly, without rancor, saying something like, “We’re here to work. You aren’t working here. You have to go back to your cell. Tell the counselor over there.” This was very important for all the young people in the group. That youth was the emissary of all the kids, whether he knew it or not, because everyone there had a question: “Could we make you mad?” If they could, then nothing I presented offered them a thing—they would see me as just another version of them—a full-grown wolf lying to a pack of wolf-cubs. I wanted to show them something else, that a fully developed human possesses his or her emotions, rather than emotions possessing him or her.

    The results of this training were clear. Ms. Schmid and I were told that after a year of the program, critical incidents were down fifty percent, even though no other changes had been made within the facility. Was it the baduanjin? Or the yoga? Or both? Or was it something else as well—Ms. Schmid and I embodying, literally, calm and dignity in the context of powerful trained movement. This combination was something that the young people could attach to as a exemplar of something they wished to become. It is my best guess that Ms. Schmid and I had a synergistic effect, at least with the inmates who attended both of our classes. She is a powerful but kind woman, and treats people in a very similar way as my own: frank and direct, never ingratiating herself to be liked. I think that, for the youth, getting the same ‘model of adulthood’ from a powerful man and a powerful woman was very positive.

    However, beyond modeling, what specifically did baduanjin offer these young people? There are many ways to execute these exercises—I deliberately taught them in a way that required the practitioner to tense to the degree that they were ‘intolerable.’ Then, they would continue the movement progressively relaxing. Then, when relaxation became ‘intolerable,’ the practitioner continues the cycle of the movements, incrementally increasing the tension.

    My intention was that these youth would have the experience of managing tension and release within their bodies, according to their will. Theoretically, the mind and body being intertwined in an inextricable braid of experience, this would reverberate into ‘tension’ and ‘release’ within their thinking processes and emotional reactions. For example, if, in the middle of an exercise, a young person had a troubling thought, giving rise to a troubling emotion, he or she could change his or her somatic state, at will, and notice the ebb and flow of his or her cognitive and emotional processes. By doing this by himself or herself, the young person was not dependent on another person for his or her sense of well-being or threat. Finally, because these exercises were associated with martial arts practice, these young people, obsessed with power, were able to separate this from other activities that might offer the same benefits, but were unacceptable due to their culture (that of youth who saw themselves as outlaws).

    Let me conclude this section with one poignant story which illustrate the effective of baduanjin as a vehicle to perceive another way of being. [3]

    There was a young man who attended my classes for a span of some months. He was golden-skinned, tall and lean, with long raven-black hair. His name was Angel. He never spoke to any of the other boys, walking through them like a panther through a mob of yard dogs. He always took a position at the periphery of the group, as far away from me as he could be—but he never took his eyes off of me, and he did the exercises meticulously. After some weeks, I asked staff about him. “He beat a man nearly to death—he was in a coma for months—and Angel was tried as an adult. He got twenty-five years. They are just waiting for a bed to open in the youth offender wing of the prison where he’ll be kept until he is eighteen—then he’ll be transferred to general population. Be careful of him—he’s the most dangerous kid in here.”

    One day I arrived and one of the staff told me, “Angel is going up today.” I nodded and went to class. Angel was there, silent, doing the exercises, meticulous as always. When the class ended, contrary to his habit, he lingered until everyone else had left. Then he walked towards me, slowly, his eyes fixed on mine. It looked like he was preparing to confront me physically, but at the proper distance, he veered off at an angle and paused, still looking me in the eyes. I said to him, “Where you are going, control of your emotions is the only thing that will save your life. Do your time and get home.” He walked past me, and over his shoulder, he whispered, “I wish you were my dad.”

    [1] Cheng, Fung Kei, PhD, (2015) Effects of Baduanjin on Mental Health: A Comprehensive Review, Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 19, 138-149

    [2] It is obvious that Ms. Schmid’s involvement complicates this account, in terms of making definitive pronouncements as to baduanjin’s effectiveness alone (or Astanga Yoga, for that matter). Hence the need for more research.

    [3] A more extensive version of this paper, with a second story/case account, will be a contribution to the forthcoming Open Access Online Anthology about (Asian) Martial (and Movement) Arts and (Psycho-)therapy. The anthology will be published and hosted by the European Academy of Biopsychosocial Health (Germany), a state recognized professional training academy for psychosocial professionals and psychotherapists in Germany under the lead of Prof. em. (VU Amsterdam) Dr. Dr. Dr. Hilarion G. Petzold. The main focus of the anthology will be Martial Arts and Clinical Therapy/Psychotherapy and Martial Arts, Pedagogics and Personal Development. In addition, there will also be articles on Martial Arts History, Philosophy and Culture. More than 100 academic or clinical experts and martial arts practitioners from around the world will contribute to this project. The anthology will be published in 2022.

    Cheng, Fung Kei, PhD, (2015) Effects of Baduanjin on Mental Health: A Comprehensive Review, Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 19, 138-149
    Gene Ching
    Author of Shaolin Trips
    Support our forum by getting your gear at MartialArtSmart

  3. #153
    Join Date
    Jan 1970
    Fremont, CA, U.S.A.

    Health Qigong & Parkinson's

    Effects of Health Qigong Exercises on Physical Function on Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Authors Wan Z, Liu X, Yang H, Li F, Yu L, Li L, Wang Y, Jiang H, Zou J, Du J
    Received 28 January 2021
    Accepted for publication 25 March 2021
    Published 28 April 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 941—950
    Checked for plagiarism Yes
    Review by Single anonymous peer review
    Peer reviewer comments 3
    Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

    Zhirong Wan,1 Xiaolei Liu,2 Hui Yang,3 Fang Li,2 Lingling Yu,4 Lei Li,5 Yulin Wang,6 Hao Jiang,7 Junjie Zou,8 Jichen Du1

    1Department of Neurology, Aerospace Central Hospital, Beijing, 100049, People’s Republic of China; 2Chinese Traditional Regimen Exercise Intervention Research Center, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, 100084, People’s Republic of China; 3China Wushu Academy, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, 100084, People’s Republic of China; 4Physical Education School of Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Physical Education, Lu Dong University, Shandong, 264011, People’s Republic of China; 6Division of Sports Science and Physical Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, People’s Republic of China; 7School of Humanities and Social Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 518172, People’s Republic of China; 8Neurology Department, Yantai Penglai People’s Hospital, Yantai, 265600, People’s Republic of China

    Correspondence: Jichen Du
    Department of Neurology, Aerospace Central Hospital, No.15, Yuquan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100049, People’s Republic of China
    Tel +86-13801015089

    Purpose: To measure motor function improvements in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using Health Qigong exercises.
    Patients and Methods: Fifty-two PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stages I to IV) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Twenty-six PD patients in the experimental group were intervened with routine medicine and fitness Qigong exercise. The other 26 PD patients as the control group were treated only with regular medication. Twelve-week intervention had been conducted for the study, and participants completed the scheduled exercises 4 times per week for 60 minutes each time. Data which included the one-legged blind balance, physical coordination, and gait was collected before, during, and after the intervention. Comparisons were made between the experimental and control groups through the repeated measures analysis of variance.
    Results: A total of 40 participants (77% response rate) completed the study. There was no significant difference in baseline data. After 12 weeks of Health Qigong therapy, the length of time the one-legged blind balance test had increased (P < 0.01), and the time it took to TUG test was reduced (P < 0.01). Joint range of motion and gait significantly improved. The control group’s there were no significant differences in the above variables, except for joint range of motion, which decreased.
    Conclusion: Health Qigong exercises can significantly improve physical functions in patients with PD, especially for the balance ability, gait, joint range of motion in patients with PD. It can reduce their activity risk factor and improve their quality of life.
    Follow the link to download the article.
    Gene Ching
    Author of Shaolin Trips
    Support our forum by getting your gear at MartialArtSmart

  4. #154
    Quote Originally Posted by GeneChing View Post
    Follow the link to download the article.
    Big problem with the study is that the control group only received regular medication. To be able to draw any conclusions about the Qigong regimen they'd need a control group doing some other kind of physical exercises. Otherwise all the study says is that practising movements helps. Which every doctor tells every patient already (as far as I know).

  5. #155
    Qigong is an ancient Chinese exercise and healing technique that involves meditation, controlled breathing, and movement exercises if it's done accordingly, I believe it can be a great help.

  6. #156
    Join Date
    Jan 1970
    Fremont, CA, U.S.A.


    ‘A massive spiritual shift’: how the mindful movement of qigong can treat addiction
    The gentle motion, breathing and meditation stop the mind ‘wandering to negative thoughts’, says a recovering Victorian addict
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    Adrian Miller uses qigong, an ancient Chinese meditation, which involves gentle movements, controlled breathing and even slapping. Photograph: Christopher Hopkins/The Guardian
    Emilio Lanera
    Fri 25 Mar 2022 15.47 EDT

    Adrian Miller tried many times to kick his addiction to drugs and alcohol.

    He read books, spoke to doctors, tried cognitive behavioural therapy, changed partners, went travelling, and more.

    While in south-east Asia, he had the idea of going to live with the monks in Cambodia.

    “I thought if I stayed with the monks maybe they’d have some answers, but to be honest I only lasted one night because they didn’t have air conditioning,” he recounts.

    “I was just looking for a quick fix.”

    Miller, now 48, says he discovered drugs and alcohol at 15 and “had a lot of fun for 10 years, but the next 10 years were horrible”.

    “I became unhappy and stressed, even though I had a successful corporate job and a business degree. But it was like I was leading a double life and after a few years I started having really bad panic attacks and had a long battle with depression and anxiety.”

    Miller’s attempts to extricate himself from addiction gained momentum when he checked himself into Refocus Rehab Melbourne.

    Adrian Miller uses Qigong, an ancient Chinese meditation to help his emotional well-being and mental health. It is integral to his recovery from addiction. Photograph by Christopher Hopkins for The Guardian Photograph: Christopher Hopkins/The Guardian
    But it was a fateful meeting with a friend of a friend in a cafe that introduced him to an ancient Chinese art form that proved to be the emotional breakthrough he needed.

    “She had this nice aura about her. I asked what she did, because I was still in a pretty dark depression.

    “She said she did this qigong meditation. I had no idea what qigong was, but … she was looking a bit happier than I was, so I thought why not give it a go?

    “I went to Warrandyte and did a weekend of qigong, and I just had this massive spiritual shift.

    “It was like real heaviness and depression had been lifted. I felt lighter, happier, more optimistic and just generally brighter. I wasn’t as closed off any more.”

    Since attending that workshop, as well as enrolling in Alcoholics Anonymous, Adrian, from Balaclava, has remained sober for 11 years and now relies on qigong instead of substances to calm himself during difficult times. He also runs qigong classes for people needing to unload their own emotional baggage.

    An ancient Chinese meditation, qigong involves gentle movements, controlled breathing and even slapping. The aim is to move energy, referred to as chi, throughout your body and remove any physical, mental, emotional or spiritual blocks an individual may be facing.

    Adrian Miller uses Qigong, an ancient Chinese meditation to help his emotional well-being and mental health. It is integral to his recovery from addiction. Photograph by Christopher Hopkins for The Guardian Photograph: Christopher Hopkins/The Guardian
    Attending one of Miller’s virtual classes during lockdown, it was easy to see that participants’ stress and anxiety was high. At first the screen was filled with scrunched up faces and tense shoulders. When Miller asked how everyone was feeling, there was dead silence. But as he guided the class through their gentle movements, bodies began to loosen and during breaks people talked more openly about how lockdown was affecting them.

    “The movements of qigong help because they provide the mind with a job and stop it from wandering to those negative thoughts,” Miller says.

    Dr Shalini Arunogiri is an addiction psychiatrist and deputy clinical director at Turning Point, a national addiction treatment and research centre that started in Victoria in 1994. Arunogiri says clinical trials have shown different types of mindful meditation to be effective when practised alongside counselling or psychological treatment.

    “Meditation and mindful movement can have a role to play for many people in their recovery,” she says.

    “Aspects of these types of approaches help people reconnect and become more in tune with their bodies, or support better management of emotions.”

    Adrian Miller uses Qigong, an ancient Chinese meditation to help his emotional well-being and mental health. It is integral to his recovery from addiction. Photograph by Christopher Hopkins for The Guardian Photograph: Christopher Hopkins/The Guardian
    Mindful movement coach Paul Daniele, from Preston, also uses qigong techniques, as well as practices from yoga and Pilates, to help people dealing with addiction.

    “I found when I was working with people with addictions, a lot of people were at rock bottom, but there was a real openness to mindful movement,” he says.

    Daniele says mindful movement helped him overcome his own dependency on marijuana, which started with smoking a joint to relax.

    “My reliance on marijuana started as a teenager but at the time I didn’t have the skills or coping mechanisms to be aware of my emotions and thought patterns. I wasn’t realising how much I was relying on weed to calm my social anxiety,” he says.

    “The whole point of mindful movement is to calm our mind and stabilise our body without resorting to substances.”

    He found the more he practised mindful movement techniques, the less he relied on marijuana.

    “Also, the more I have practised things like meditation and yoga, the less I am using it as a first-aid kit and more as a preventative measure. So instead of waiting until I feel anxious to practise mindful movement, I instead practise it pretty much every day as a way to keep those anxious feelings away.”

    Miller, who also works as a personal trainer, was last year offered a job at the rehab centre he used to attend as a patient. This full circle moment was not lost on him and whenever he incorporates qigong into his sessions and sees a client have an emotional breakthrough, he can’t help but feel overjoyed.

    “I hate to give you the impression you do qigong a few times and it’s smooth sailing. Life still happens … but qigong just helps you navigate those moments when **** hits the fan,” he says.

    “I know how much it hurts to be in that dark space and how scary it can be at times. So when I do it and there are one or two people in class that respond, it’s priceless.”
    Glad it's working for him.
    Gene Ching
    Author of Shaolin Trips
    Support our forum by getting your gear at MartialArtSmart

  7. #157
    Join Date
    Jan 1970
    Fremont, CA, U.S.A.

    Diabetes study in the Journal of Integrative and Complementary Medicine

    Mind- and Body-Based Interventions Improve Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Fatimata Sanogo, Keren Xu, Victoria K. Cortessis, Marc J. Weigensberg, and Richard M. Watanabe
    Published Online:7 Sep 2022

    Aims/Hypothesis: Only 51% of patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <7% target. Mind and body practices have been increasingly used to improve glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes, but studies show inconsistent efficacy. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between mind and body practices, and mean change in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: The authors conducted a literature search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and seeking through June 10, 2022, published articles on mind and body practices and type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently appraised full text of articles. Only intervention studies were included. Reviewers extracted data for meta-analysis. Restricted maximum likelihood random-effects modeling was used to calculate the mean differences and summary effect sizes. The authors assessed heterogeneity using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Funnel plots were generated for each outcome to gauge publication bias. Weighted linear models were used to conduct study-level meta-regression analyses of practice frequency.

    Results: The authors identified 587 articles with 28 meeting the inclusion criteria. A statistically significant and clinically relevant mean reduction in HbA1c of −0.84% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.10% to −0.58%; p < 0.0001) was estimated. Reduction was observed in all intervention subgroups: mindfulness-based stress reduction: −0.48% (95% CI: −0.72% to −0.23%; p = 0.03), qigong: −0.66% (95% CI: −1.18% to −0.14%; p = 0.01), and yoga: −1.00% (95% CI: −1.38% to −0.63%; p < 0.0001). Meta-regression revealed that for every additional day of yoga practice per week, the raw mean HbA1c differed by −0.22% (95% CI: −0.44% to −0.003%; p = 0.046) over the study period. FBG significantly improved following mind and body practices, with overall mean difference of −22.81 mg/dL (95% CI: −33.07 to −12.55 mg/dL; p < 0.0001). However, no significant association was found between the frequency of weekly yoga practice and change in FBG over the study period.

    Conclusions/Interpretation: Mind and body practices are strongly associated with improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The overall mean reduction in HbA1c and FBG was clinically significant, suggesting that mind and body practices may be an effective, complementary nonpharmacological intervention for type 2 diabetes. Additional analyses revealed that the mean decrease in HbA1c was greater in studies requiring larger number of yoga practice sessions each week.

    Gene Ching
    Author of Shaolin Trips
    Support our forum by getting your gear at MartialArtSmart

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