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Thread: CBD (cannabidiol)

  1. #1
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    ttt 4 2013

    The $900,000 question is "is marijuana a PED?"

    Boxer Julio Cesar Chavez, Jr.’s marijuana use safer than alcohol
    Posted on March 19, 2013 at 11:20 am by David Downs in Legal, sports

    A sport predicated on brain damage? Celebrated. A drug shown to prevent cognitive decline? Banned. A billboard calling out such hypocrisy? Priceless.

    Boxer Julio Cesar Chavez, Jr.’s $900,000 fine and nine-month suspension for testing positive for marijuana is the subject of a new billboard unveiled in Las Vegas today. According to the national legalization lobby Marijuana Policy Project, the billboard decries the Nevada State Athletic Commission’s Punishment of Chavez Jr. for using pot, as Chavez prepares to file a lawsuit challenging the huge fine. The nation’s largest marijuana policy organization paid for the advertisement and calls on NSAC to drop the penalties and ‘stop driving athletes to drink’.

    Here’s the graphic of the billboard at 2001 Western Ave., Las Vegas, which references a new poll showing a solid majority of Nevada voters support making marijuana legal for adults and regulating it like alcohol.

    MPP “calls on the NSAC to drop the excessive penalties against Chavez and change its policy so that it no longer steers athletes toward using alcohol by threatening to punish them if they choose to use the less harmful substance – marijuana.”

    MPP intends to deliver a request to the NSAC in the form of a Change.org petition that currently has more than 5,250 signatures – http://chn.ge/ZqWSuX.

    “Issuing such harsh penalties for marijuana does nothing to promote the health and safety of athletes,” wrote Mason Tvert, director of communications for the Marijuana Policy Project in a statement. “If anything, it puts them in danger by steering them toward using alcohol and away from making the safer choice to use marijuana instead.”

    “Marijuana is far less toxic, less addictive, and less likely to contribute to violent and aggressive behavior than alcohol,” Tvert said. “The NSAC should change its marijuana policy and stop driving athletes to drink.”

    Furthermore, the U.S. government has sought to patent pot’s ingredients like cannabidiol for use as a non-toxic neuroprotectant during incidents of brain damage like stroke, or, I don’t know, repeated punches to the head.

    Public Policy Polling has found a solid majority (54%) of Nevada voters would support a ballot initiative to make marijuana legal for adults and regulate it like alcohol.

    A bill to make marijuana legal for adults was introduced in the Nevada Legislature on Friday by Assemblyman Joe Hogan.
    Gene Ching
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  2. #2
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    Cannabis VS Cancer - this plant packs a PUNCH

    Back on topic - it appears cannabis may indeed have a place in health promoting practice. CBD aka cannabidiol has been found to have pain-killing and inflammation reducing properties. Last summer I had a long conversation with a gentleman who's wife had been suffering from a rare form of cervical cancer that was not responding to conventional treatment. As a last resort, she started juicing the fresh leaves of a particular strain of cannabis. Soon thereafter, her doctors were puzzled as her blood analysis numbers were improving and it seemed she was beating the cancer. Although I am not sure of the final outcome, it was certainly intriguing, to say the least. Also, I have a client who is taking CBD oil for prostate cancer and I just received word today that his PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels were HALF of what they were 6 months ago, before he started CBD therapy. This is a case where there is definitely an effect, as this chap doesn't even have a prostate anymore, so any level of PSA detectable is considered to be a harbinger of tumor formation.

    The following is quoted directly from the NIH (National Institute on Health) cancer portal website - see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/p...essional/page4 for complete references list, etc.

    Cannabis and Cannabinoids

    Cannabinoids are a group of 21-carbon–containing terpenophenolic compounds produced uniquely by Cannabis species (e.g., Cannabis sativa L.) .[1,2] These plant-derived compounds may be referred to as phytocannabinoids. Although delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient, other known compounds with biologic activity are cannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and delta-8-THC. CBD, in particular, is thought to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity without the psychoactive effect (high) of delta-9-THC.

    Antitumor Effects

    One study in mice and rats suggested that cannabinoids may have a protective effect against the development of certain types of tumors.[3] During this 2-year study, groups of mice and rats were given various doses of THC by gavage. A dose-related decrease in the incidence of hepatic adenoma tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was observed in the mice. Decreased incidences of benign tumors (polyps and adenomas) in other organs (mammary gland, uterus, pituitary, testis, and pancreas) were also noted in the rats. In another study, delta-9-THC, delta-8-THC, and cannabinol were found to inhibit the growth of Lewis lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo .[4] In addition, other tumors have been shown to be sensitive to cannabinoid-induced growth inhibition.[5-8]

    Cannabinoids may cause antitumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis.[9-12] Two reviews summarize the molecular mechanisms of action of cannabinoids as antitumor agents.[13,14] Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. For example, these compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats, while they protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor.[9]

    The effects of delta-9-THC and a synthetic agonist of the CB2 receptor were investigated in HCC.[15] Both agents reduced the viability of HCC cells in vitro and demonstrated antitumor effects in HCC subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. The investigations documented that the anti-HCC effects are mediated by way of the CB2 receptor. Similar to findings in glioma cells, the cannabinoids were shown to trigger cell death through stimulation of an endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway that activates autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Other investigations have confirmed that CB1 and CB2 receptors may be potential targets in non-small cell lung carcinoma [16] and breast cancer.[17]

    An in vitro study of the effect of CBD on programmed cell death in breast cancer cell lines found that CBD induced programmed cell death, independent of the CB1, CB2, or vanilloid receptors. CBD inhibited the survival of both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner while having little effect on nontumorigenic mammary cells.[18] Other studies have also shown the antitumor effect of cannabinoids (i.e., CBD and THC) in preclinical models of breast cancer.[19,20]

    CBD has also been demonstrated to exert a chemopreventive effect in a mouse model of colon cancer.[21] In this experimental system, azoxymethane increased premalignant and malignant lesions in the mouse colon. Animals treated with azoxymethane and CBD concurrently were protected from developing premalignant and malignant lesions. In in vitro experiments involving colorectal cancer cell lines, the investigators found that CBD protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels, and reduced cell proliferation. In a subsequent study, the investigators found that the antiproliferative effect of CBD was counteracted by selective CB1 but not CB2 receptor antagonists, suggesting an involvement of CB1 receptors.[22]

    Another investigation into the antitumor effects of CBD examined the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).[12] ICAM-1 expression has been reported to be negatively correlated with cancer metastasis. In lung cancer cell lines, CBD upregulated ICAM-1, leading to decreased cancer cell invasiveness.

    In an in vivo model using severe combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneous tumors were generated by inoculating the animals with cells from human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.[23] Tumor growth was inhibited by 60% in THC-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated control mice. Tumor specimens revealed that THC had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. However, research with immunocompetent murine tumor models has demonstrated immunosuppression and enhanced tumor growth in mice treated with THC.[24,25]

    In addition, both plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied for anti-inflammatory effects. A mouse study demonstrated that endogenous cannabinoid system signaling is likely to provide intrinsic protection against colonic inflammation.[26] As a result, a hypothesis that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids may be useful in the risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer has been developed.[27-30]

    CBD may also enhance uptake of cytotoxic drugs into malignant cells. Activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2) has been shown to inhibit proliferation of human glioblastoma multiforme cells and overcome resistance to the chemotherapy agent carmustine.[31] In an in vitro model, CBD increased TRPV2 activation and increased uptake of cytotoxic drugs, leading to apoptosis of glioma cells without affecting normal human astrocytes. This suggests that coadministration of CBD with cytotoxic agents may increase drug uptake and potentiate cell death in human glioma cells. Also, CBD together with THC may enhance the antitumor activity of classic chemotherapeutic drugs such as temozolomide in some mouse models of cancer.[13,32]

    Appetite Stimulation

    Many animal studies have previously demonstrated that delta-9-THC and other cannabinoids have a stimulatory effect on appetite and increase food intake. It is believed that the endogenous cannabinoid system may serve as a regulator of feeding behavior. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide potently enhances appetite in mice.[33] Moreover, CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus may be involved in the motivational or reward aspects of eating.[34]

    Analgesia

    Understanding the mechanism of cannabinoid-induced analgesia has been increased through the study of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and synthetic agonists and antagonists. The CB1 receptor is found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral nerve terminals. Similar to opioid receptors, increased levels of the CB1 receptor are found in regions of the brain that regulate nociceptive processing.[35] CB2 receptors, located predominantly in peripheral tissue, exist at very low levels in the CNS. With the development of receptor-specific antagonists, additional information about the roles of the receptors and endogenous cannabinoids in the modulation of pain has been obtained.[36,37]

    Cannabinoids may also contribute to pain modulation through an anti-inflammatory mechanism; a CB2 effect with cannabinoids acting on mast cell receptors to attenuate the release of inflammatory agents, such as histamine and serotonin, and on keratinocytes to enhance the release of analgesic opioids has been described.[38-40] One study reported that the efficacy of synthetic CB1- and CB2-receptor agonists were comparable with the efficacy of morphine in a murine model of tumor pain.[41]
    And so I ask - what is really so evil about this plant?


    Keep your friends close, but your seed supply closer

    herb ox

  3. #3
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    trove of cannabis plants

    I was researching an article on marijuana and ancient China a long time ago, back when I was a freelancer and looking to expand my submission range. Back then, the earliest evidence of marijuana usage was in China, at least as far as I found. I should dig up that source.

    ChineseInvestors.com, Inc. (CIIX) Taps Traditional Chinese Medicine Market with CBD
    February 22, 2017



    No one should have been astonished at the discovery, reported by NPR (http://dtn.fm/ah9NX), of a ‘trove of cannabis plants found in (an) ancient tomb in China’. China represents a past civilization that has sprung many surprises over the centuries, and has given us some of our greatest inventions, including the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing.

    On par with these innovations has been Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has relied, in part, on herbal remedies (tui na). The use of plant derivatives to alleviate maladies is as natural to the Chinese as drinking tea, which itself is thought to promote dental health due to a richness of fluoride in some strains, with anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties in others, and is a good source of Vitamin A in still others. Two millennia ago, a ‘tea’ made from hemp was consumed for medical purposes. Now ChineseInvestors.com, Inc. (OTCQB: CIIX) is going back to those roots. The company aims to be ‘the premier provider of cannabidiol (CBD) oil to the Chinese population in mainland China’.

    CBD oil is a compound extracted from the cannabis plant. However, plants bred and grown for their high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content are commonly referred to as marijuana. THC is psychoactive and is responsible for the ‘high’ that marijuana use provides. Other cannabis plants contain only trace amounts of THC but have high concentrations of CBD, which is the second most common cannabinoid of the 85 or so found in cannabis. Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychotropic. Plants with a preponderance of CBD are called hemp.

    Hemp oil is rich in protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 6, omega 3 and insoluble fiber. It is a good source of tocopherols or Vitamin E antioxidants and is packed with minerals such as potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus, as well as microelements like strontium, thorium, arsenic and chromium. Hemp oil is thought to increase immunity, counteract aging skin and improve cardiovascular health. Several studies show that the linoleic acid present in hemp oil can slow down the aging process and fight psoriasis.

    There have been encouraging reports (http://dtn.fm/P6Ps1) of CBD helping epileptics, and Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) has called for more study (http://dtn.fm/Rp9cM) into the use of CBD to treat epilepsy.

    Unlike their western counterparts, Chinese companies have a long history of researching and developing cannabis products. Data published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) indicate that Chinese firms account for about half of the filings for patents on cannabis products.

    Late last month, CIIX announced it was launching the world’s first CBD health products online store in the Chinese language under the domain name www.ChineseCBDoil.com. The company will use the site to sell CBD oil products to customers in the Chinese mainland, where hemp oil-derived products are legal, and to Chinese speakers in the U.S. and Canada.

    At present, the competitive landscape is clear, with virtually no rivals, and CIIX has signed an agreement with a San Diego producer to white label and distribute a number of CBD products, which, since they are not THC based, are legal in all 50 U.S. states, as well as in China.

    The prospects for success are excellent. Founder and CEO of CIIX, Warren Wang, recently cited an industry study as he announced an alliance with a Chinese private equity firm to raise capital for investment in medical and recreational marijuana ventures:

    “According to The CBD Report published by The Hemp Business Journal, cannabidiol is one of the fastest growing market categories in the U.S. hemp and legal marijuana industries. In 2015, the CBD industry grew from a nearly invisible market… to $202 million in consumer sales, and it is further expected to grow to $2.1 billion in consumer sales by 2020. We are very excited that CIIX is launching the world’s first CBD online store focused on providing CBD health products for Chinese-speaking customers and making it possible for them to order various types of CBD products through www.chinesecbdoil.com.”

    Traditional Chinese medicine is about to experience a renaissance.

    For more information, visit the company’s website at www.ChineseInvestors.com
    Gene Ching
    Publisher www.KungFuMagazine.com
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  4. #4
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    Major review from Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Front. Pharmacol., 10 March 2017
    Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    E. Joseph Brand and Zhongzhen Zhao*
    School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated.

    Introduction
    Cannabis sativa L. has been cultivated in China for millennia for use as a fiber, food, and medicine. References to cannabis are found throughout classical Chinese literature, including in many famous works of philosophy, poetry, agriculture, and medicine. Fiber-rich biotypes of cannabis (hemp) were extensively used in ancient China for clothing and the production of paper, rope, and fishing nets (Dai, 1989), and the achenes (“seeds”) of cannabis have been continuously used in Chinese medicine for at least 1800 years. Today, China is regarded as one of the world's ancient epicenters of hemp cultivation, resulting in a diverse germplasm with genetically distinct regional varieties of fiber-rich hemp that are adapted to local environmental conditions throughout the country (Gao et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2014).

    The prominence of hemp in ancient Chinese culture can be seen by its occurrence in classical literature from the Warring States Period (475–221 BC), including philosophical works by Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi, Zhuangzi, and Mozi, as well as the Classic of Poetry (Shi Jing; Sun, 2016). By the first to second century AD, the ancient Shuowen dictionary (Shuo Wen Jie Zi) featured multiple Chinese characters that illustrate knowledge of the dioecious nature of cannabis and discriminate based on gender (Liu, 1999).

    In the sixth century AD, the agricultural text Essential Techniques for the Welfare of the People (Qi Min Yao Shu) described techniques for the cultivation of hemp in great detail, and its monograph on cannabis cultivation features one of the first textually documented applications of fertilizer in the history of Chinese agriculture (Shi, 1957). This text also demonstrates the knowledge that removal of male plants at the initiation of flowering will result in a lack of seeds; however, the text focuses exclusively on cultivation and harvesting practices to maximize the production of seeds and the quality of fiber and does not reference the deliberate production of seedless cannabis (Shi, 1957).

    It is notable that most classical Chinese references focus on the use of cannabis for its seeds and fiber, with few, if any, explicit references to drug effects seen outside of the medical literature. Although early Chinese medical literature suggests that both drug and fiber biotypes of cannabis were known in ancient times, more research is needed to clarify the implications of these different biotypes in medical applications. Additionally, further research is needed to probe whether the medical applications of cannabis in ancient Chinese literature may relate to non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), which may have been present in ancient fiber biotypes as well as drug biotypes (see Figure 1).

    FIGURE 1

    Figure 1. The chemical structures of cannabidiol (CBD, left) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, right).

    Cannabis in Chinese Medicine
    Cannabis has been continually documented in Chinese medicine for ~1800 years. In the modern era, its achenes (commonly referred to as “seeds” and known in TCM as huomaren 火麻仁) are frequently used as a moistening laxative and are official in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (CP, 2015). All parts of the cannabis plant have been recorded in historical Chinese medical texts, including the achene (seed), female inflorescence, leaf, and root, as well as the cortex of the stalk and the water used to process the stalk into fiber. However, only the achenes (seeds) are currently used in clinical practice (Brand and Wiseman, 2008).

    In contrast to the prominent use of the achenes in Chinese medicine, many applications of cannabis in early Western medicine focused on preparations made from the female flowering tops of drug varieties of cannabis, which were featured in early Western pharmacopeia texts from the nineteenth to twentieth century (Wood, 1918). In the modern era, the investigation of cannabis for medical purposes in the West has continued to primarily focus on cannabinoids, resulting in prescription medicines such as the botanically derived drug “Sativex” by GW Pharmaceuticals (a mixture of Δ9-THC and cannabidiol in an oromucosal spray that is sold by prescription in 15 countries, including the UK, Germany, Italy, Canada, Australia, and Spain; Russo et al., 2007).

    The notable contrast between the medical applications of cannabis in traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine has been poorly explored in current ethnopharmacological literature. Despite the fact that cannabis preparations have been extensively and consistently documented in Chinese bencao (materia medica) texts for ~1800 years, no English-language publications have systematically assessed the medicinal indications of cannabis in the Chinese bencao literature and historical changes in the plant parts used. Few reliable translations of Chinese monographs on cannabis from traditional bencao texts exist, which has led to significant gaps in the Western understanding about how cannabis was used in Chinese medicine.

    Additionally, many problems related to cannabis in TCM remain unresolved in the contemporary Chinese literature. Modern Chinese journal articles as well as historical authors have attempted to clarify the complicated nomenclature of the female inflorescence in bencao literature (Liu and Shang, 1992; Liu, 1999; Liu et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2010), and monographs in modern TCM texts detail different plant parts and their use across a range of historical texts (Editorial Committee, 1977; Cui and Ran, 1993). However, a number of modern and historical Chinese sources contradict each other in terms of which plant parts correspond to certain traditional drug names such as mafen (麻蕡), mahua (麻花), and mabo (麻勃), complicating the interpretation of their medical actions.

    As the difference between drug and fiber varieties of cannabis is largely determined by genetics, the historical and geographic prevalence of different biotypes of cannabis in China likely influenced its applications in Chinese medicine. However, this crucial question has received only limited attention in the Chinese literature. Furthermore, most Chinese publications that have attempted to address the topic of speciation as it relates to the historical application of cannabis in Chinese medicine utilize a relatively simplistic taxonomic model that does not take recent scientific advances into account (Liu and Shang, 1992; Wei et al., 2010).
    continued next post
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    Continued from previous post

    FIGURE 4

    Figure 4. Entry on cannabis in the Compendium of Materia Medica.

    In addition to these five representative bencao texts of different dynasties, records related to cannabis were reviewed from 84 additional pre-modern bencao texts dating from the twelfth century to the late nineteenth century. The sources included 6 bencao texts from the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD), 4 texts from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 AD), 32 texts from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), and 47 texts from the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911 AD).

    Most historical bencao texts that were written prior to the invention of printing in the Song Dynasty are no longer intact, but their content has been preserved in printed texts such as the Materia Medica Arranged According to Pattern (證類本草 Zheng Lei Ben Cao) from 1108 AD. Accordingly, the Materia Medica Arranged According to Pattern, which cited 25 previous historical sources in its discussion on cannabis, was selected as a representative source for pre-Song Dynasty content (Tang, 1999). An additional early source of records related to cannabis from the Treatise of the Five Viscera (五臟倫 Wu Zang Lun), a manuscript discovered in an archeological excavation at Dunhuang that is thought to date from the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), was also reviewed.

    Additionally, four thematic bencao were reviewed to investigate records related to specific geographic regions and imported medicinals. These texts include the tenth century Materia Medica from Overseas (海藥本草 Hai Yao Ben Cao), the thirteenth century Materia Medica from Steep Mountainsides (履巉巖本草 Lu Chan Yan Ben Cao), the fifteenth century Yunnan Materia Medica (滇南本草 Dian Nan Ben Cao), and the nineteenth century Illustrated Reference of Botanical Nomenclature (植物名實圖考 Zhi Wu Ming Shi Tu Kao).

    Finally, monographs on cannabis from a variety of modern materia medica compendiums were reviewed. In addition to each edition of the Chinese Pharmacopeia from 1977 to 2015, several twentieth century compendiums of materia medica were reviewed, including the Great Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicinals (中藥大辭典 Zhong Yao Da Ci Dian), the Sea of Chinese Medicinals (中華藥海 Zhong Hua Yao Hai), the National Collection of Chinese Herbal Medicines (全國中草藥彙編 Quan Guo Zhong Cao Yao Hui Bian), the Chinese Materia Medica (中華本草 Zhong Hua Ben Cao), and the Chinese Great Encyclopedia (中華大典 Zhong Hua Da Dian). Modern compilations focused on Chinese herbal formulas and ethnic minority medical traditions in Western China were also reviewed, including texts on Uighur, Yao, Miao, and Tibetan medicine. Additionally, publications from English and Chinese scientific journal databases such as CNKI, Wanfang, Google Scholar, and Scopus were analyzed based on a wide range of search terms related to Chinese medicine and cannabis in both English and Chinese.

    Approach to Translation of Technical Terms
    Preserving the traditional terminology of Chinese medicine is essential in order for translations to capture the original meaning of historical sources. In this work, a source-oriented approach to translation is utilized; in most cases, the technical terms used in translation can be cross referenced to the original Chinese using the terminology established in A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine (Wiseman and Feng, 1998). Additional bilingual term lists referenced in the process of translation include: the Dictionary of the Ben cao gang mu, Volume 1: Chinese Historical Illness Terminology (Zhang and Unschuld, 2014), the WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region, and International Standard Chinese-English: Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine.

    In the context of cannabis, several unique challenges relate to the translation of the plant parts used, as historical sources offer conflicting descriptions of different plant parts. In particular, historical and contemporary sources are divided regarding the botanical structures that correspond to the terms mafen (麻蕡), mahua (麻花), and mabo (麻勃), as well as terms related to the fruit or seed such as mazi (麻子), maziren (麻子仁), and mashi (麻實). In this review, these terms are preserved via a combination of English, Pinyin, and Chinese, and the implications of their historical and contemporary confusion are discussed.

    Identification of Traditional Actions and Indications That May Reflect Cannabinoids
    In contemporary Chinese medicine, fiber-rich biotypes of cannabis provide the achenes used as huomaren (Cannabis Fructus). However, as the achenes of cannabis contain at most only trace amounts of cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC (Mölleken and Husmann, 1997), the indications of the achenes are unlikely to relate to cannabinoids and their observed effects are unreliable for differentiating the historical prevalence of different biotypes of cannabis in Chinese medical applications. Similarly, Chinese medical records related to other plant parts with minimal cannabinoid content, such as the stalks and roots of cannabis, are of limited value for differentiating historical biotypes or evaluating applications that may relate to cannabinoids. Thus, the primary plant parts that can be reasonably expected to illustrate effects that relate to cannabinoids are the leaf and female inflorescence. Accordingly, while the actions, indications, and properties of all parts of the cannabis plant were reviewed in the historical texts described above, the female inflorescence and leaf formed the focus of the investigation.

    A review of the nature, flavor, actions, and indications of various cannabis plant parts in Chinese bencao reveals a number of terms that may indicate the presence of intermediate or drug biotypes of cannabis. For example, applications related to severe pain, perceived toxicity, or actions such as inducing anesthesia or hallucinations may reflect the historical presence of drug biotypes. Accordingly, the terminology associated with such effects was compared with descriptions of other drugs found in the Chinese materia medica that have known hallucinogenic or narcotic effects, such as Datura spp., Hyoscyamus niger L., and Papaver somniferum L. Additionally, the bencao literature was reviewed for other medical applications that have been associated with cannabinoid-rich preparations, including applications for conditions such as epilepsy and mental illness that may be related to the pharmacology of cannabidiol CBD rather than psychoactive cannabinoids such as Δ9-THC (Mechoulam et al., 2002; Devinsky et al., 2014).
    continued next post
    Gene Ching
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  6. #6
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    I should probably start a CBD thread.


    Aurora Cannabis to research CBD with mixed martial arts outfit UFC, Canopy names new CFO

    By Ciara Linnane
    Published: May 22, 2019 7:37 a.m. ET


    Getty Images

    Aurora Cannabis Inc. shares rose Tuesday, after the Canadian company said it has entered a multiyear, multimillion-dollar agreement with mixed martial arts organization UFC to research the effect of hemp-derived CBD products on athlete recovery and wellness.

    The companies have agreed to conduct the research at UFC’s Las Vegas institute, setting up clinical studies to evaluate CBD, a nonintoxicating ingredient in cannabis and hemp, as a treatment for pain management, inflammation, injury/exercise recovery and mental well being. Aurora shares ACB, +0.58% ACB, +0.00% rose 3%.

    CBD is widely held to have benefits for all of those indications, although there is not a great deal of research to back up the claims, as MarketWatch’s Sarah Toy reported last week. The substance is also caught in regulatory limbo ever since the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which fully legalized hemp but moved regulation of CBD to the Food and Drug Administration.

    The FDA has said it would not allow companies to add CBD to food or beverages until a regulatory framework has been created. That’s because CBD is the main ingredient in the only cannabis-based drug to win FDA approval, Epidiolex, a treatment for severe childhood epilepsy developed by GW Pharma PLC.

    The FDA appears ready to allow CBD to be added to cosmetics and topicals for now, although it will not allow companies to make claims regarding their efficacy in treating serious illnesses. Last month, the regulator charged three CBD companies with violating the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act for putting unapproved human and pet drugs into interstate commerce and making unsubstantiated health claims about them, according to Cannabis Law Report.

    The FDA issued warning letters to Advanced Spine and Pain LLC, based in New jersey and Pennsylvania, Nutra Pure LLC, a Washington-based CBD company and Florida-based PotNetwork Holdings.

    “The FDA’s tripartite assault, coupled with its landmark FTC prosecutorial alliance, sent shock waves through both the hemp and legalized Marijuana industries,” said Cannabis Law, noting that health and wellness and food and drinks are what makes CBD attractive to consumers.

    Canopy Growth Corp. shares CGC, +3.51% WEED, +3.23% rose 2.6%, after it named Constellation Brands Inc. STZ, -0.08% executive Mike Lee as interim chief financial officer, replacing Tim Saunders, who will remain at the company as an adviser. Lee will become permanent CFO once Health Canada completes a security clearance that is required for all officers of the company. Constellation Brands invested $4 billion in Canopy last year, arming the Smiths Falls, Ontario-based company with a war chest to expand its business.

    In regulatory news, the National Cannabis Industry Association is holding a legislative briefing Wednesday on the Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Banking Act, a bipartisan bill aimed at providing protections for banks that serve the cannabis industry in states that have legalized.

    Speakers include Colorado Democratic Rep. Ed Perlmutter, one of the sponsors of the bill, along with representatives of the banking industry and individual cannabis companies.

    For more on this topic, read: Push for legislation allowing banks to serve the cannabis business is gaining momentum

    Shares of 48North Cannabis Corp. NRTH, -2.56% rose 21%, after the company posted earnings for its fiscal third quarter, showing a net loss of C$1.47 million ($1.1 million) on revenue of C$689,203. The company said it has received an outdoor cultivation license from Health Canada for a 100-acre organic farm in Brant County, Ontario, that it said will be one of the biggest-ever licensed cannabis operations in the world. The company expects to have more than 45,000 kg of dried cannabis in 2019 across its three facilities.

    Tilray Inc. shares TLRY, +5.98% rose 1.1% and Aphria Inc. APHA, -0.29% APHA, -0.44% was up 5.4%. Hexo Corp. HEXO, -0.14% was up 1.0%.

    Medical cannabis retailer MedMen Enterprises Inc. shares MMNFF, -2.42% were flat. Valens GroWorks Corp. VGWCF, -1.68% was down 0.6%.

    Organigram Holdings Inc. US:OGRMF was up 4.1% on its first day of trade on the Nasdaq exchange.

    GW Pharma PLC GWPH, -0.65% was up 3.0% and Green Growth Brands Inc. GGBXF, -1.17% was down 3.9%. Curaleaf Holdings Inc. CURLF, -0.65% was down 0.7%.

    The Horizons Marijuana Life Sciences ETF HMMJ, +1.14% was up 1%, and the ETFMG Alternative Harvest ETF MJ, +0.83% was up 2%.

    The Dow Jones Industrial Average DJIA, -0.20% was up 0.7%, while the S&P 500 SPX, -0.20% was up 0.9%.
    THREADS
    Marijuana & MMA
    marijuana tcm?!?!?!?!!?
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    Long form journalism from good ol' Newsweek

    Pop Culture Says CBD Cures Everything—Here's What Scientists Say
    BY DAVID H. FREEDMAN ON 08/29/19 AT 5:00 AM EDT


    CBD, which comes from hemp, doesn’t make you high. But many people use it for sleep, pain, anxiety and other health issues. It comes in oils, lotions, “vape” cartridges, smokable “flower” and candy. Medical science is just starting to catch up.
    FROM LEFT: MAREN CARUSO/GETTY; THOMAS VOGEL/GETTY

    Jonathan Duce entered Dion's, his neighborhood liquor store in Waltham, Massachusetts, walked past the wine and six-packs and headed straight for the gummy worms. At $69 for a jar of 25, they were more expensive than the Chateauneuf du Pape, but he didn't mind. His wife likes them, he says, because they help her sleep.The gummies aren't just candy. Each one packs a 30-milligram wallop of cannabidiol, or CBD, a constituent of the cannabis plant, more commonly known as hemp, a cousin of marijuana. Dion's started selling CBD products four months ago and now one in every 15 people who walk in buys at least one of the store's 30 CBD products, which include tinctures, vaping cartridges, smokable "flower," capsules and lotions. "But gummies are our biggest mover," says Kristen Correia, who works behind the counter.Duce, 54, prefers rubbing salve on his neck to relieve the stress of work. "We discovered CBD at a farmer's market a few months ago," he says." Instead of taking a prescription drug, I'd rather take something like this that comes from a plant."Mass-market retailers like CVS, Walgreens and Krogers have already signed up to carry CBD products with Walmart said to be close behind them. CBD candies and other products have been widely available online and in tens of thousands of small stores across most states; and the entrance of large retailers is about to pour gas on that fire. Big Food and Beverage lurks in the wings with its own plans to inundate the world with CBD ice cream and beer. The Brightfield Group, a market research firm, projects that CBD annual sales in the U.S., now at $600 million, will grow by a factor of 40 to $23 billion by 2023.


    OPENRANGESTOCK/GETTY

    Hardly anyone had heard of CBD three years ago, but now two-thirds of Americans are familiar with it, according to a recent Gallup survey. One in seven Americans use it as an over-the-counter treatment for pain, anxiety and sleep problems. They have also turned to CBD for depression, muscle spasms, digestive issues and skin ailments. One in three pet owners give it to their dogs and cats, says a survey by market-research firm Packaged Facts. It's also been touted as a treatment for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. One medical clinic reported that CBD relieved 90 percent of all symptoms in all its patients."Consumers are participating in one of the largest uncontrolled clinical trials in history, and no one really knows what it is they're taking," says Pal Pacher, an investigator at the National Institutes of Health and president of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. "It's scary."Trouble is, almost all of the claims are currently unsubstantiated. Clinical trials have failed to produce convincing evidence that CBD works on anything other than rare epilepsies, the sole treatment licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The agency, in fact, forbids companies from attributing any other health benefits to the substance. (It reprimanded Curaleaf, a startup, for making unsubstantiated claims about cancer and other diseases.)

    "As far as we know, this may all be mostly a placebo effect," says Pacher. "Everybody is being sucked into the big hype."The one thing scientists know about CBD is that it's reasonably safe. There is solid data supporting the notion that it does no harm. "There are no credible issues with toxicity, and most people tolerate it quite well," says Michael Tagen, a pharmacology researcher who consults for pharmaceutical companies about cannabis-related neuroscience.Beyond safety, science doesn't tell us much one way or the other. But that leaves open the possibility that CBD does some good and that at least some of the claims that people make about its restorative powers are true. Many scientists, in fact, think that further testing will uncover additional benefits—but which ones, if any, remain to be seen.Europe and Israel have gotten a big head start on CBD research due to long standing legal restrictions in the U.S., but American scientists are rushing to catch up. In the meantime, says Tagen, "People should feel free to try CBD and see if it works for them."What's it good for?Everyone seems to know someone who raves about what CBD has done for them. Words like "miraculous" appear frequently in media reviews. Aside from anecdotes, there is some scientific evidence that CBD has benefits beyond epilepsy. These come mainly from observational studies, which track improvements after patients take CBD. Many people show improvements with sleep, anxiety, digestive problems and a variety of aches and pains. Such studies lack the controlled comparisons to a placebo or other treatment, which is critical to getting a drug approved. But they are still considered scientific evidence, if of a weaker sort, and often establish promise for drugs long before clinical trials can confirm it.While the animal and human observational evidence supports CBD's potential effectiveness for many conditions, the picture is far from clear. Consider CBD's impact on sleep and anxiety. A study from the University of Colorado Denver published earlier this year followed 103 patients with a mix of sleep and anxiety problems over three months of CBD treatment, finding that on average, CBD helped with anxiety, but sleep benefits faded after a month, possibly because the brain builds up a tolerance. And yet a similar patient study found the mirror opposite: that CBD gave sustained benefits on sleep but not anxiety. Rodent studies, too, go back and forth on the same questions.This sort of hit-or-miss evidence has also been turning up for CBD's ability to fight the "inflammation" caused when the body's immune system attacks healthy cells. Inflammation is considered a cause or symptom of a wide range of ailments, including allergies, heart disease and illnesses of the gut. "Most major diseases are inflammatory, and that alone would make CBD useful," says Maurizio Bifulco, a professor and CBD researcher at the University of Naples Federico II Medical School in Italy.Likewise, research indicates that CBD may—or may not—be helpful for psychosis, opioid withdrawal, arthritis, antibiotic-resistant infections, non-Parkinson's tremors, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, tissue rejection after transplants, the side effects of cancer chemotherapy and even for several types of cancer itself, including the most aggressive and untreatable form of brain cancer. (Oddly enough, the property that wins CBD the most praise from users—pain relief—is one of the most weakly supported, with CBD often failing to provide much benefit in studies.)Scientists are not deterred by this conflicting data. Many new drugs get mixed results in tests—even Tylenol, a proven pain reliever for millions of people, comes up short in some trials. The clinical trials on CBD that have been done so far could have been flawed in ways that missed some of its healing properties. Hundreds of new trials now getting underway may do a better job of zeroing in them. "We really don't know what to measure in patients right now," Pacher says. "I do think in the longer term we'll figure that out and see some positive results in clinical trials."What impresses researchers most about CBD is that it offers at least a hint of effectiveness against such a wide range of often serious and hard-to-treat conditions without providing a corresponding hint of the problematic and sometimes dangerous side effects that hang over virtually all other drugs. Of those who use CBD oil, 40 percent take it daily, according to Paul Norman, CEO of Heavenly Rx, a major producer of CBD products. A survey by Consumer Reports earlier this year that found 22 percent of CBD users are using it as a substitute for prescription medications.
    continued next post
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    Continued from previous post


    Hemp clones at Wild Folk Farm are prepared for planting. Businesses, undeterred by conflicting results in clinical trials, are ramping up to meet a growing demand.
    GETTY/BEN MCCANNA/PORTLAND PRESS HERALD

    Industry Rushes InA more relaxed regulatory environment has helped set the stage for the CBD boom. Although the hemp plant includes only trace amounts of THC, it is a close cousin to marijuana. (CBD can also come from marijuana plants in which the THC has been bred out or extracted.) While there are still occasional stories of CBD busts and seizures at hemp farms, mom-and-pop stores and airports, they are rapidly vanishing. That's due to public outrage over any effort to suppress what's increasingly seen as a beneficial and harmless substance and to federal and state efforts to spell out CBD's legality. It helped, too, that the 2018 Farm Bill passed by Congress protected hemp growers, processors and sellers from federal or state prosecution, with reasonable qualifications such as keeping THC levels below 0.3 percent of the dry weight of the product. "There are still FDA restrictions," notes Brandon Beatty, CEO of Bluebird Botanicals, one of the better-known purveyors of CBD, with 2018 sales of $14 million. "But at least there's no risk now from the Drug Enforcement Administration."

    With consumers going all in and the government backing off, the business world has stepped up to meet demand. Bluebird's 2018 sales were more than double its 2017 figures and the company says it's on track to more than double sales this year, too. That's typical for the industry. Veritas Farms, another major player and a publicly traded company, has also doubled revenues annually for the last two years and turned in first-quarter revenues this year of more than $1.5 million, nearly four times higher than the same quarter last year.Big retail's entry will keep that streak going. Veritas is already in 950 stories, including CVS and Rite Aid, and expects to reach 1,350 stores this year across 22 states as Kroger starts hawking the company's products. Heavenly Rx, another major player, brought in CEO Norman from Kellogg, where he ran the company's $9 billion North American business. "The CBD industry's future is in mainstream distribution," says Norman, adding that he thinks as much as two-thirds of all CBD products will be sold in big stores by 2022.The boom will be even bigger when CBD starts getting infused into major consumer products, such as cosmetics. Most of the stuff is currently sold as tinctures and capsules, but consumers have also taken to slathering it on their skin. Most of the leading CBD manufacturers have started selling a range of lotions and balms and major cosmetics retailer Sephora has taken on topical CBD products from Estée Lauder and other companies.Soon consumers may be getting CBD with almost anything they put in their mouths. "Global food, beverage and tobacco companies are just treading water waiting for the FDA to allow them to add CBD," says Brady Cobb, CEO of SOL Global Investments, a cannabis-focused investment firm that owns 45 percent of Heavenly Rx. "When that happens, they're going to plunge in head first." Among the companies that have reportedly already made plans to bring out CBD-infused products are Coca-Cola, Molson Coors Brewing and American Premium Water. Heavenly Rx has invested in craft soda maker Jones Soda, with the intention of eventually bringing out CBD versions. It's also acquired a line of protein bars for the same reason. "CBD can help with recovery after a yoga workout," explains Norman—a claim many users would endorse, though no study has clearly proven that CBD aids in workout recovery.


    Cannabinoid extracts have been approved in Thailand.
    GUILLAUME PAYEN/SOPA IMAGES/LIGHTROCKET/GETTY

    What's in the bottle?With CBD products, it's hard to be sure what you're getting. THC aside, most companies boast of offering "broad spectrum" or "full spectrum" CBD products, which means other ingredients from hemp plants end up in the mix besides CBD. There are in fact hundreds of compounds in hemp falling into a variety of categories with names like cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids.Many consumers are already sold on the notion of "the entourage effect"—the scientifically unsubstantiated, though not entirely implausible, claim that the different ingredients somehow combine to provide health benefits that go beyond what any of the individual components might do. But good luck sorting out which of those ingredients are actually present in a given CBD product and in what quantities. "'Full spectrum' is a meaningless marketing term," says Tagen. "It's rare that any of these companies actually test for these ingredients and even rarer that they release the results."In fact, it's hard for consumers to know much of anything about what they might be getting when they buy a CBD product. "Some of these companies have zero science behind what they're doing," says Karyemaître Aliffe a Seattle-based physician and pharmaceutical researcher who runs a small biotech company and teaches at the University of Miami Medical School. "The quality control and regulatory oversight for CBD is not much beyond what it is for Snickers bars."Studies have indicated CBD products from some established vendors can have CBD levels well below or above what's claimed on the label, along with illegally high levels of THC and contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. The hemp plant tends to pull in whatever lies in the soil and hang onto it, so unless the soil or resulting products are carefully tested—still not the case for many CBD products, especially those imported into the U.S. rather than grown and produced here—there may be risks for any number of toxins.For what it's worth, vendors like Bluebird, Veritas and Heavenly Rx insist they have rigorous quality-control and testing programs in place and enlist independent firms to analyze and certify their products.
    continued next post
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  9. #9
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    Continued from previous post


    Samantha Brown’s daughter Kaylee, 5, depends on a cannabis oil to manage seizures. Millions of people now use CBD to treat themselves, their children or their pets. So far, the FDA has approved CBD only for two forms of epilepsy, but the substance is widely considered to be safe.
    GETTY/DEREK DAVIS/PORTLAND PRESS HERALD

    But even if you knew exactly what is in the bottle, is there enough of it to do you any good? There's little understanding of CBD dosages at this point, but what scientists do know suggests the amounts normally advertised as a typical dose are probably well below what's needed to make a big dent in a health problem. The rare childhood epilepsies—the one condition considered proven to be treatable with CBD—are treated with daily doses in the range of 500 milligrams, or about a sixtieth of an ounce—and that's for children. The standard recommended adult dose of over-the-counter CBD oil is an eyedropper-full, typically amounting to between a fiftieth and a hundredth as much CBD as the child-epilepsy dose. It wouldn't be advisable to take hundreds of milligrams a day—that would require chugging a whole bottle—outside of a doctor's care, but anyone who did would likely be paying more than a thousand dollars a month for the habit.Cecilia Hillard, director of the Neuroscience Research Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin, and one of the U.S.'s more prominent CBD researchers, says that she's encountered people who actually take such large over-the-counter doses and who do in fact report higher levels of relief from such problems as neuropathic pain. But one big hitch, notes Hillard, is that at doses that large, many CBD products would be delivering enough THC along with it to provide a bit of a high and that's more likely where the relief is coming from. "Even at high doses, the effects of CBD itself tend to be mild," she says. Human studies of CBD using purified and tested versions of CBD with little or no THC have shown effectiveness against acute anxiety, but they use single doses in the range of 300 milligrams—dozens of times larger than what a typical consumer takes. If CBD vendors were to recommend such high doses, it would raise concerns about as-yet-undiscovered side effects. And it prices CBD treatment out of the reach of most consumers.Tongue vs gut vs clinical trialsAdding to the uncertainties over CBD's effectiveness is the variation in how it gets into the bloodstream, which is where it has to go to do any good. Smoking and vaping are relatively efficient ways to take it—they deliver about half of the CBD in a dose to the bloodstream in seconds. But they carry health risks similar to smoking and vaping tobacco. Placing a tincture under the tongue and holding it there for a minute delivers about 20 percent of the CBD, with a delay of a few minutes. Swallowing CBD is the least efficient of all—only 10 percent makes it into the bloodstream because liver enzymes break CBD down in the gut—and what does make it through can take two hours to reach your blood. Eating fatty foods helps, because CBD dissolves in fat and is thus more easily absorbed in the gut before being broken down. But that doesn't bode well for consumption via fat-free beer or soda. "You'd end up with vanishingly small amounts in your body," says Hillard. "I can't imagine that little doing anything at all."


    One hazard of an unregulated industry is that consumers can’t be sure what dosage they’re getting. A lot also depends on the method used for taking the CBD. Vaping delivers about half the CBD to the bloodstream in seconds, but carries some health risks.
    GETTY/BSIP

    That makes taking CBD under the tongue—so-called sublingual consumption—a winner in many experts' and aficionados' minds. But you won't see that recommended on your bottle of CBD oil. That's partly because many consumers don't like the oily, grassy-tasting stuff pooling around their mouths. It's also because the FDA doesn't allow unapproved references to sublingual dosing, considering it a drug-delivery mechanism. "Under the tongue is my personal preference," says Alexander Salgado, CEO of Veritas Farms, "but I can't say that on a label until the FDA provides some clarity." If the FDA relents on that score, Salgado predicts there'll be a big market for CBD-saturated strips that dissolve under the tongue.Chewing gum could hit another sweet-spot. Axim Biotechnologies, which has patents on gum-based drug delivery and FDA approval, is selling gum with 10 milligrams of CBD. "A chemotherapy patient can chew a piece and get immediate relief," claims Axim CEO John Huemoeller. The company will soon introduce a line of mass-market "wellness" gums that mix CBD with caffeine, ginseng, melatonin, tryptophan (the ingredient in turkey that supposedly makes everyone sleepy after Thanksgiving dinner) and other ingredients. It's also starting clinical trials of toothpaste and mouthwash that will aim CBD's claimed anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against gingivitis and periodontitis.
    Researchers are now fashioning clinical trials to learn which patients can be helped by what form of CBD. More than 500 trials are in the works around the world, says Hillard, fueled partly by startups already profiting from CBD. One firm, Kannalife Sciences, is designing clinical trials for treating chemotherapy side effects, liver disease, chronic skin conditions, non-Parkinson's tremors and even stage IV cancers. "At stage IV you have to hit the cancer with a sledgehammer," says CEO Dean Petkanas. "We want to transfuse 10,000 milligrams of CBD into bone marrow to see if it reduces the proliferation of cancer cells."Researchers will have to ply the scientific method through hype-roiled waters for years. In the meantime, doctors, scientists and consumers will have to feel their way. "Cannabinoid therapeutics is a completely new frontier," says Petkanas. "We're just where antibiotics were in the 1930s."
    I'm launching this new CBD (cannabidiol) thread, independant from our marijuana tcm?!?!?!?!!? thread. I think I've plucked the only CBD specific news piece above. If anyone sees another, just post the html here and I'll copy that too. I suppose many of them are relevant, given that this is the TCM forum, but I'm looking specifically for mentions of CBD and the forum doesn't search out 3 letter words (or anagrams in this case).
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  10. #10
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    I'm not quite awake yet...

    Quote Originally Posted by GeneChing View Post
    I suppose many of them are relevant, given that this is the TCM forum, but I'm looking specifically for mentions of CBD and the forum doesn't search out 3 letter words (or anagrams in this case).
    I found more searching 'cannabidiol' and copied them above.

    duh.
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  11. #11
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    FDA warning

    I'm surprised it took the FDA so long to issue this warning. There's a lot of money in CBD and the FDA can definitely get some.


    FDA Says Most CBD Products May Not Be Safe, and Warns 15 Companies to Stop Selling Them

    By Nicoletta Lanese - Staff Writer 5 hours ago Health

    CBD may pose unknown health risks and cannot be marketed as a dietary supplement, food or therapeutic cure-all.


    (Image: © Shutterstock)

    CBD products may be trendy, but health officials are worried that these products — which are often marketed illegally — may not be safe.

    Yesterday (Nov. 26), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warning letters to 15 companies that sell CBD products because the products violate federal law. The agency also issued an update to consumers about the popular products, and stressed that there is limited evidence for their safety.

    CBD, short for cannabidiol, is a chemical found in cannabis that does not induce a mind-bending high. Although drug developers have long sought to uncover the potential health benefits of CBD, to date, only one CBD product has survived the FDA approval process — a prescription drug to treat rare forms of childhood epilepsy. Nonetheless, consumers can now purchase any number of unapproved CBD products, from oils to chocolate bars to pet foods, from companies that claim their goods deliver therapeutic benefits or help treat disease.

    These companies have broken federal law by marketing the unproven health benefits of their CBD products, mixing the drug into food, or advertising CBD as a dietary supplement, the FDA announced yesterday. What's more, these companies may have placed their customers at unknown risk, the FDA said.

    "We remain concerned that some people wrongly think that the myriad of CBD products on the market, many of which are illegal, have been evaluated by the FDA and determined to be safe, or that trying CBD 'can’t hurt,'" Dr. Amy Abernethy, the FDA's principal deputy commissioner, said in a statement. In reality, the FDA does not have enough data to say whether CBD can be "generally recognized as safe," and several reports raise questions about the unintended health consequences of consuming the compound.

    For instance, when scientists first tested the safety of the approved CBD epilepsy drug, they noted that CBD could inflict damage to the liver. If taken without medical supervision, the damage could prove more extensive, the FDA said in a consumer update on cannabis-derived compounds. Several studies indicate that CBD may alter how the body breaks down other drugs, either increasing or decreasing their potency. In addition, studies in animals suggest the compound may impede the function of testes and sperm, deplete testosterone levels and impair male sexual behavior.

    Some reports have uncovered contaminants "such as pesticides and heavy metals" in CBD products, the FDA said. Other studies highlight the potential side effects of taking the compound, including sleep disruption, diarrhea, abdominal pain and mood changes. And questions still linger about how repeated CBD exposure might affect someone over time.

    Moreover, the compound may trigger unknown effects in vulnerable populations, including pregnant people and children. Some of the companies called out today specifically market products "for infants and children," who may not metabolize and excrete the drug as adults do, the agency noted.

    "As we work quickly to further clarify our regulatory approach for products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds like CBD, we'll continue to monitor the marketplace and take action as needed against companies that violate the law in ways that raise a variety of public health concerns," Abernethy said.

    The FDA defines a "drug" as any non-food product intended to treat a disease, have a therapeutic use, or affect the structure or function of the body. By this definition, many CBD products count as drugs and should be subject to the same scrutiny as other pharmaceuticals, Abernethy said. In addition, the FDA will continue to evaluate the safety and regulation of CBD products intended for "non-drug uses," according to the consumer update.

    "This overarching approach regarding CBD is the same as the FDA would take for any other substance that we regulate," Abernethy said. The agency encouraged consumers to speak with health care professionals about how to treat diseases and conditions with existing drugs, and to be wary of "unsubstantiated claims" associated with CBD products.

    The FDA requested that the companies issued letters respond within 15 working days and report how they plan to correct the violations.
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  12. #12
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    CBD - it's time has come...

    I did start that CBD thread by copying a few posts off the Marijuana & MMA and marijuana tcm?!?!?!?!!? threads.

    How CBD Got Into The World Of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)
    January 04, 2020 7:41pm



    By WeedMaps News' Adam Woodhead, provided exclusively to Benzinga Cannabis.

    Roman Mironenko's story as a professional mixed martial artist is a familiar one. After some career-high points, including a stint on the Russian reality show Mixfighter, he retired to train and teach Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) in Marseille, France. But due to the intense pain from a disc herniation from his competing days, his training was sidelined for months. He eventually found relief in a CBD oil he took sublingually twice a day. In time, he was able to return to BJJ training.

    Mironenko's story is just one of many where professional and amaeteur fighters use CBD to help recover and protect their bodies from the physical and psychological toll of mixed martial arts (MMA).

    It's a trend that MMA fighters find themselves ahead on compared to the rest of the sports world. Writing for the Telegraph, longtime fight sports journalist Gareth Davies argued that MMA athletes looking for pain management and “neuro-protective plusses” to protect against traumatic brain injuries had anticipated the CBD trend ahead of most other athletes and sports organizations.

    The trend became all the more evident when major MMA organizations began endorsing CBD wholeheartedly. In June of 2019, Bellator MMA, one of the largest MMA promotion companies, announced it had partnered with cbdMD, a CBD products brand that also sponsors professional fighters Chael Sonnen, Jorge Masvidal, and Daniel Cormier.

    A month later, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), the largest and most successful MMA promotion company in the world, got into the mix when the UFC Performance Institute and publicly traded Canadian giant Aurora Cannabis announced they would be partnering up to clinically study whether CBD can treat the aches and pains of UFC fighters. The findings will be used to develop a line of hemp-derived CBD topicals.

    Leslie Smith, a veteran MMA fighter and one of the first female fighters in the UFC, told Weedmaps News she can't quite remember when she first encountered CBD.

    “Cannabis has always been such a big part of my life and my training,” Smith said. “I don't know if it's a shared love and appreciation for cannabis and healthy living that brought me to San Francisco and [Cesar Gracie] team, or if it just happened to work out that way.”

    CBD enters the UFC with the “Nate Diaz rule.”
    While Smith doesn't recall when she first encountered CBD, she does remember when CBD broke to the larger UFC public. The conversation around CBD began with a fighter who, like Smith, was part of the team at Cesar Gracie Academy: Nate Diaz.

    “I think it was when Nate Diaz vaporized CBD right after his fight at the press conference,” Smith said. “I feel like that was the time that it really meshed the use of CBD in the fighting community ... and the general public.”

    In August of 2016, following his rematch with Conor McGregor at UFC 202, Diaz was seen using a vape cartridge at the post-fight Press Conference. Dosing with CBD after a fight or sparring session is something that Smith practiced as well, using a 5,000-milligram full-spectrum tincture from Alpha Cannax.

    “I definitely take it after any sparring session. Any time that I'm sparring and my head is getting hit,” she said. “I take it immediately after the practice, and then I take it again at night time. Basically, for as long as I'm feeling fuzzy.”



    At the time, however, all cannabinoids, including CBD, were banned during competition and the incident was flagged by the media as a potential doping violation. Debate about whether Diaz had violated a rule ensued. This resulted in the creation of the so-called “Nate Diaz Rule” in 2018, under which CBD is allowed during competition even if other cannabinoids are not.

    At open workouts before his match up with Anthony Pettis at UFC 241, Diaz found himself the subject of media scrutiny once again when he lit a joint and passed it to fans in the crowd. Diaz claimed it was CBD flower, but either way, the use of cannabinoids was well outside the bounds of the in-competition period.

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    MMA fighters are still cautious about using CBD
    While CBD is gaining in popularity among fighter athletes, they are still cautious about how and when they use it when training and recovering. CBD's emergence has come at a time when concern over tainted supplements, false positives, retroactive sanctions, and potentially canceled events is at an all-time high.

    The Diaz brothers' regular conflict with, and sanctions from, officials have been noted by their fellow athletes. In the run-up to a recent bout in Oklahoma, Smith switched her CBD supplement as a precaution.

    “The commission there in Thackerville does not allow you to have any metabolites in your system at all,” she said. “Even the small amount that would show up inside of the [Alpha Cannax] full-spectrum CBD would have cost me some money and gotten me some bad publicity. So I was taking Game Up Nutrition as I was getting ready for that fight.”

    The fear of testing positive for THC from taking a CBD product is a sentiment echoed to Weedmaps News by John Kelly, the head coach and owner of Live Free Crossfit, and the fighter he trains, UFC heavyweight Jairzinho Rozenstruik.

    “These guys work really hard,” Kelly said. “If for some reason they get popped for THC when they were trying to take a supplement, then it's going to destroy everything that they worked towards.”

    Finding trust in a CBD product that will both work and not cause a fighter to run afoul of the rules is paramount to fighters interested in using CBD. After some research, Kelly opted for Cannafornia CBD for Rozenstruik's training. “I looked into the company pretty deeply and I saw all the third party testing, and I saw that there were very low levels of THC,” Kelly said. “So that was one of the deciding factors that made us go with [Cannafornia], was how clean the product was.”

    Rozenstruik is also one of the top tier UFC athletes sponsored by Cannafornia CBD. Others have included Derrick Lewis and — until a falling out in December — Colby Covington, who Cannafornia CEO Paul King told Weedmaps News was the first fighter he decided to work with after the pair met in Miami. King said that Kelly works as the strength and conditioning coach for three of six fighters sponsored by the company.

    Rozenstruik uses CBD as a topical rub before and after training, and orally before bed. His dosage is approximately 33 milligrams, which is doubled after intense training sessions.

    “It helps, especially when you do strength training and your body gets sore,” Rozenstruik said. “I use the cream on my body and it really helps me recover really fast."

    One of the most productive ways to use CBD is as a way to find balance in a fighter's training, according to Kelly. Using CBD to find the range between not being overtrained or undertrained is what allows athletes to optimally perform on fight night.

    “It's all about homeostasis,” Kelly said.

    Image by Unspash
    Gene Ching
    Publisher www.KungFuMagazine.com
    Author of Shaolin Trips
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